By W H G Armytage
A Social background of Engineering indicates how social and monetary stipulations in each one age have brought on advances in engineering. There are, briefly, financial, political, and philosophical implications in altering applied sciences. whereas the ebook starts with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the majority of the amount concentrates at the 19th and 20th centuries. A Social background of Engineering displays Professor Armytage's specific topic quarter pursuits, particularly nineteenth-century business society, radical and socialist events, the historical past association, and the research of upper and technical schooling.
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Extra info for A Social History of Engineering
D. For although the prepara tion of alkaline dyes from the ashes of plants was known from early time, its preparation with tallow and vegetable oils seems to have been confined to medicinal ointments. To Pliny (Natural History, Book XXVIII, Cap. 51) soap was 'an invention of the Gauls for giving a red dish tint to the hair' and a propaedeutic for scrofulous sores. For the Romans used fullers earth for cleansing, and cosmetics for adorn ment. Not until the time of Aretaeus (c. D. 250) is soap mentioned as being used for washing clothes, and then only by the Gauls, though Aretaeus recommended it for bathing.
He also notes a number of interesting power devices. One was a saw mill driven by water, another a machine to afford perpetual motion, and a third a device to enable an angel to keep his finger always pointing towards the sun. The building of cathedrals and castles generated the first theoretical treatise on structural analysis by Jordanus Nemorarius (c. 1237). His Elementa de Ponderis, though elementary, contains a discussion of statics. Since the large windows of the cathedrals needed glazing to keep out the draughts as well as to admit the light, they were built up from small pieces of glass strengthened by leaden ribs.
He was much impressed by the arsenal of Venice where the Vene tians built their ships. To Dante it had seemed a hell, large and noisy, like the fifth abyss of the Inferno where Simonists and statesmen in public offices lay in a bath of pitch. But to Galileo its bustle and activity were a constant stimulus. ' Galileo now felt he could marry the new mathematics of Cardano, Vieta and Stevin with the practices of the arsenal. The result was his Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences (from which the observations on the Venetian Arsenal in the preceding section were taken).
A Social History of Engineering by W H G Armytage