By John G. Webster (Editor)
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This is not the case when strictly empirically fitting a narrow range of data. This can lead to gross deviations, orders of magnitude apart, when projecting to field humidities of Յ10% at the corrosion site under operating conditions. It is much safer to adhere to a physical approach, such as the BET model, which has a more scientific basis. Several empirical forms used in chip reliability were developed by Lycoudes (24), Peck (25), Merrett, Bryant, and Studd (26), Sherley and Hong (27), Sim and Lawson (28), Polman and Fokkens (29), Anolick et al.
It appears that cracks form and grow in each cycle by being fed dislocations that move in from the surrounding lattice. Thus, the intersection of moving dislocations is a principal cause of the formation of vacancies and fatigue damage. We know from the striations on the fracture surface that crack propagation takes place in each cycle. Forsyth (6) has advanced a mechanism for the formation of striations, which involves first, the extension of the crack front by simple slip on the primary glide plane and second, further extension by cross-slip as the stress increases.
5 ϫ 10Ϫ12m3 /s и m2 n ϭ Number of bumps per chip a ϭ Lateral area per bump N ϭ Number of chips per module L ϭ Leak rate (air), m3(atm)/s For Q Ӷ L, Eq. (30) reduces to Eq. (26) because the oxygen consumption rate within the module is negligible relative to the O2 leak rate. However, if Q ӷ L, the maximum oxygen level achievable within the module (steady state) is reduced by the factor L/Q. Such an equilibrium level depends on both the leak rate and oxidation rate. The larger the number of solder joints per chip and the number of chips per module, the lower the O2 at steady state.
52.Reliability by John G. Webster (Editor)